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Sébastien Pierard - Publications ORBI
Wang, Y., Pierard, S., Su, S.-Z., & Jodoin, P.-M. (2017). Improving pedestrian detection using motion-guided filtering. Pattern Recognition Letters, 96, 106-112.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
In this letter, we show how a simple motion-guided nonlinear filter can drastically improve the accuracy of several pedestrian detectors. More specifically, we address the problem of how to pre-filter an image ...
Azrour, S., Pierard, S., Geurts, P., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2017). A two-step methodology for human pose estimation increasing the accuracy and reducing the amount of learning samples dramatically. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems.
Peer reviewed
In this paper, we present a two-step methodology to improve existing human pose estimation methods from a single depth image. Instead of learning the direct mapping from the depth image to the 3D pose, we ...
Braham, M., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2017). Semantic Background Subtraction. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Beijing 17-20 September 2017 (pp. 4552-4556). IEEE.
Peer reviewed
We introduce the notion of semantic background subtraction, a novel framework for motion detection in video sequences. The key innovation consists to leverage object-level semantics to address the variety of ...
Laugraud, B., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2017). LaBGen: A method based on motion detection for generating the background of a scene. Pattern Recognition Letters, 96, 12-21.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Given a video sequence acquired with a fixed camera, the generation of the stationary background of the scene is a challenging problem which aims at computing a reference image for a motionless background. For ...
Laugraud, B., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2016). LaBGen-P: A Pixel-Level Stationary Background Generation Method Based on LaBGen. 2016 International Conference on Pattern Recognition Contest Proceedings (pp. 107-113). IEEE.
Peer reviewed
Estimating the stationary background of a video sequence is useful in many applications like surveillance, segmentation, compression, inpainting, privacy protection, and computational photography. To perform ...
Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2016). What are the optimal walking tests to assess disability progression? Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 22(S3), 452-453.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Background. Therapy success is assumed when there is no evidence of disease activity. Clues to show it include an MRI, the relapses history, questionnaires, and clinical measures to assess the disability ...
Azrour, S., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2016). Leveraging orientation knowledge to enhance human pose estimation methods. Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects AMDO 2016 (pp. 81-87). Springer.
Peer reviewed
Predicting accurately and in real-time 3D body joint positions from a depth image is the cornerstone for many safety, biomedical, and entertainment applications. Despite the high quality of the depth images ...
Pierard, S., Lejeune, A., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2016). Boosting shape classifiers accuracy by considering the inverse shape. Journal of Pattern Recognition Research, 11(1), 41-54.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Many techniques exist for describing shapes. These techniques almost exclusively consider the contour or the inside of the shape; the major problem for describing the outside of a shape, or inverse shape ...
Azrour, S., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2016, May 19). Improving pose estimation by building dedicated datasets and using orientation. Poster session presented at Human Motion Analysis for Healthcare Applications, London, UK.
Markerless pose estimation systems are useful for various applications including human- computer interaction, activity recognition, security, gait analysis, and computer-assisted medical interventions. They ...
Azrour, S., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2015). Defining a score based on gait analysis for the longitudinal follow-up of MS patients. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 23(S11), 408-409.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
BACKGROUND. The project GAIMS [ECTRIMS 2013 P800] aims at developing a gait measuring system particularily suited for the clinical routine, and providing a reference database with the gait characteristics of ...
Pierard, S., Phan-Ba, R., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2015). Understanding how people with MS get tired while walking. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 23(S11), 406.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
BACKGROUND. Walking impairment is frequent, appears early in the disease course of MS patients (MSP), and is perceived as the most disabling symptom. When walking, patients get tired more and differently than ...
Laugraud, B., Pierard, S., Braham, M., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2015). Simple Median-Based Method for Stationary Background Generation Using Background Subtraction Algorithms. New Trends in Image Analysis and Processing - ICIAP 2015 Workshops (pp. 477-484). Springer.
Peer reviewed
The estimation of the background image from a video sequence is necessary in some applications. Computing the median for each pixel over time is effective, but it fails when the background is visible for less ...
Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2015). A perfect estimation of a background image does not lead to a perfect background subtraction: analysis of the upper bound on the performance. International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (pp. 527-534). Springer.
Peer reviewed
The quest for the “best” background subtraction technique is ongoing. Despite that a considerable effort has been undertaken to develop flexible and efficient methods, some elementary questions are still ...
Wang, Y., Pierard, S., Su, S.-Z., & Jodoin, P.-M. (2015). Nonlinear Background Filter to Improve Pedestrian Detection. New Trends in Image Analysis and Processing - ICIAP 2015 Workshops (pp. 535-543). Springer.
Peer reviewed
In this paper, we propose a simple nonlinear filter which improves the detection of pedestrians walking in a video. We do so by first cumulating temporal gradient of moving objects into a motion history image ...
Phan-Ba, R., Giet, A., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2015, April 10). Individual variation of gait parameters along a 500 meter walk in people with multiple sclerosis and healthy volonteers. Poster session presented at 20th Annual Conference of Rehabilitaon In Multiple Sclerosis (RIMS), Milan, Italy.
Peer reviewed
Background: we previously demonstrated the usefulness of the Deceleration Index (DI, the ratio between the last 100m of the Timed 500-Meter Walk test –T500MW – and the walking speed - WS – of the Timed 25 ...
Phan-Ba, R., Pierard, S., Giet, A., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2015). Individual variation of gait characteristics along a 500 meter walk in people with multiple sclerosis and healthy volunteers. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 21(4), 532-533.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Background: we previously demonstrated the usefulness of the Deceleration Index (DI, the ratio between the last 100m of the Timed 500-Meter Walk test –T500MW – and the walking speed - WS – of the Timed 25-Foot ...
Pierard, G., Franchimont, C., Hermanns-Lê, T., & Pierard, S. (2015). Regarder dans une boule de cristal et dépister des sujets à risque pour le mélanome cutané. Revue Médicale de Liège, 70, 446-449.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer showing an increasingly growing incidence in white populations of Europe and United States. Intensive research in recent years has begun to unlock its ...
Pierard-Franchimont, C., Hermanns-Lê, T., Pierard, G., & Pierard, S. (2015). Comment j'explore ... le "cheetah-look". Regard sur la peau sous des longueurs d'ondes particulieres de la lumiere. Revue medicale de Liege, 70(4), 204-6.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The melanotic facial pigmentation of each individual is frequently heterogeneous, even when this condition remains imperceptible under natural ambient light. However, with aging, this aspect may appear to ...
Pierard, S. (2014, October 24). The marauder's map or the use of non-intrusive range laser scanners in the context of smart rooms. Paper presented at Séminaire du CREI, Sherbrooke, Canada.
Dans cette présentation, je vais expliquer comment des capteurs laser peuvent être utilisés pour réaliser différentes fonctionnalités importantes pour les environnements intelligents. Je montrerai comment ...
PIERARD, G., Hermanns-Lê, T., Pierard, S., Dewalque, L., Charlier, C., Pierard-Franchimont, C., & DELVENNE, P. (2014). In vivo skin fluorescence imaging in young Caucasian adults with early malignant melanomas. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, 7, 225-230.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Background: Human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is an aggressive cancer showing a dramatic worldwide increase in incidence over the past few decades. The most prominent relative epidemiological increase ...
Jodoin, P.-M., Pierard, S., Wang, Y., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2014). Overview and Benchmarking of Motion Detection Methods. In Bouwmans, Porikli, Hoferlin, & Vacavant (Eds.), Background Modeling and Foreground Detection for Video Surveillance (9781482205374). Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Peer reviewed
In this chapter, we provide an overview of the most highly cited motion detection meth- ods. We identify the most commonly used background models together with their features, the kind of updating scheme ...
Pierard, S., Marcos Alvarez, A., Lejeune, A., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2014). On-the-fly domain adaptation of binary classifiers. 23rd Belgian-Dutch Conference on Machine Learning (BENELEARN) (pp. 20-28).
Peer reviewed
This work considers the on-the-fly domain adaptation of supervised binary classifiers, learned off-line, in order to adapt them to a target context. The probability density functions associated to negative and ...
Pierard, S., Azrour, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2014). Design of a reliable processing pipeline for the non-intrusive measurement of feet trajectories with lasers. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (pp. 4432-4436).
Peer reviewed
Reliable measurements of feet trajectories are needed in some applications, such as biomedical applications. This paper describes the data processing pipeline used in GAIMS, which is a non-intrusive system ...
Pierard, S., Phan-Ba, R., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2014). Machine learning techniques to assess the performance of a gait analysis system. European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning (ESANN) (pp. 419-424).
Peer reviewed
This paper presents a methodology based on machine learning techniques to assess the performance of a system measuring the trajectories of the lower limbs extremities for the follow-up of patients with ...
Azrour, S., Pierard, S., Geurts, P., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2014). Data normalization and supervised learning to assess the condition of patients with multiple sclerosis based on gait analysis. European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning (ESANN) (pp. 649-654).
Peer reviewed
Gait impairment is considered as an important feature of disability in multiple sclerosis but its evaluation in the clinical routine remains limited. In this paper, we assess, by means of supervised learning ...
Hermanns-Lê, T., & Pierard, S. (2014). Streamlining cutaneous melanomas in young women of the Belgian Mosan region. BioMed Research International, 2014.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Sporadic cutaneous melanoma (SCM) has shown a dramatic increase in incidence in Caucasian populations over the past few decades. A particular epidemiological increase was reported in women during their ...
Franchimont, C., Hermanns-Lê, T., Pierard, S., & PIERARD, G. (2014). Changements climatiques et l'antinomie de l'eau qui déshydrate. Revue Médicale de Liège, 69, 618-621.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The stratum corneum materializes the interface <br />between the body and its environment. Such a structure is <br />influenced by the climate and seasons. A series of physicochemical <br />parameters are ...
Azrour, S., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2013, November 07). Using GAit Measuring System (GAIMS) to discriminate patients with multiple sclerosis from healthy person. Poster session presented at Workshop on measurement : Challenges and Opportunities, Liège, Belgique.
Among voluntary movements, gait is the most affected by multiple sclerosis. Gait impairment is also a good indicator of the disease progression. However, measurement of gait character- istics made by ...
Pierard, S., Azrour, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2013, November 07). Measuring feet trajectories: challenges and applications. Paper presented at Workshop on measurement : Challenges and Opportunities, Liège, Belgique.
Measuring reliable feet trajectories is needed in many applications. This paper provides the principles used in GAIMS, which is a non-intrusive system that measures feet trajectories based on multiple range ...
PHAN BA, R., Pierard, S., LOMMERS, E., DELRUE, G., CALAY, P., Van Droogenbroeck, M., DELVAUX, V., & MAQUET, P. (2013). Relative Contribution of Walking Speed, Ataxia and Gait asymmetry to the Composition of Gait in Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 19(S1), 261.
Peer reviewed
Introduction - Objective: Walking speed measured according to the T25FW is the most widely used descriptor of gait in MS clinical research and practice but other dimensions influencing gait variance exist ...
Pierard, S., Azrour, S., PHAN BA, R., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2013). GAIMS: A Reliable Non-Intrusive Gait Measuring System. ERCIM News, 95, 26-27.
Peer reviewed
Gait observation and analysis can provide invaluable information about an individual [1]. Studies that have interpreted gait using traditional imaging devices have demonstrated that it is difficult to make ...
PHAN BA, R., DELRUE, G., Pierard, S., LOMMERS, E., CALAY, P., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & DELVAUX, V. (2013, June 10). Influence of the mode of walk on walking speed in multiple sclerosis: are you walking comfortably? Poster session presented at Twenty-third meeting of the European Neurological Society, Barcelona, Spain.
Peer reviewed
Introduction : Walking speed (WS) is the most frequent gait variable taken into account when measuring gait dysfunction in neurological diseases. Influences of the mode of walk instructed to the subject, i.e ...
Osmalsky, J., Pierard, S., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Embrechts, J.-J. (2013). Efficient database pruning for large-scale cover song recognition. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP). IEEE.
Peer reviewed
This paper focuses on cover song recognition over a large dataset, potentially containing millions of songs. At this time, the problem of cover song recognition is still challenging and only few methods have ...
PIERARD, G., Pierard, S., Delvenne, P., & Franchimont, C. (2013). In vivo evaluation of the skin tensile strength by the suction method: pilot study coping with hysteresis and creep extension. ISRN dermatology, 2013, 841217.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
From an engineering standpoint, both the skin and subcutaneous tissue act as interconnected load-transmitting structures. They are subject to a variety of intrinsic and environmental influences. Changes in the ...
Pierard, S., Pierlot, V., Lejeune, A., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2012). I-see-3D! An Interactive and Immersive System that dynamically adapts 2D projections to the location of a user’s eyes. International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D) (pp. 8).
Peer reviewed
This paper presents a system that gives the illusion of a 3D immersive and interactive environment with 2D projectors. The user does not need to wear glasses, nor to watch a (limited) screen. The virtual world ...
PHAN BA, R., Pierard, S., MOONEN, G., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Belachew, S. (2012). Detection and Quantification of Efficiency and Quality of Gait Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis through Foot Path Analysis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 18(S4), 110.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Introduction: Walking speed is generally considered as the best outcome measure in trials for people with multiple sclerosis (pMS). We recently designed a device based on range laser scanner capable to track ...
Lejeune, A., Pierard, S., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Verly, J. (2012). Utilisation de la Kinect. Linux Magazine France, 151, 16-29.
Peer reviewed
Fin 2010, Microsoft lançait la Kinect pour Xbox 360, la première caméra 3D destinée au grand public. Une semaine plus tard sortait la première librairie permettant d'utiliser l'appareil sur un ordinateur ...
Osmalsky, J., Embrechts, J.-J., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Pierard, S. (2012). Neural networks for musical chords recognition. Journées d'informatique musicale (pp. 39-46).
Peer reviewed
In this paper, we consider the challenging problem of music recognition and present an effective machine learning based method using a feed-forward neural network for chord recognition. The method uses the ...
Pierard, S., Lejeune, A., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2012). Recognition of emotions in facial images.
This document reports about some work done in the field of emotions classification in facial images.
Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2012). Estimation of human orientation based on silhouettes and machine learning principles. International conference on pattern recognition applications and methods (ICPRAM) (pp. 51-60 (in volume 2).
Peer reviewed
Estimating the orientation of the observed person is a crucial task for home entertainment, man-machine interaction, intelligent vehicles, etc. This is possible but complex with a single camera because it only ...
Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2012). On the human pose recovery based on a single view. International conference on pattern recognition applications and methods (ICPRAM) (pp. 310-315 (in volume 2).
Peer reviewed
Estimating the pose of the observed person is crucial for a large variety of applications including home entertainment, man-machine interaction, video surveillance, etc. Often, only a single side view is ...
Belachew, S., Pierard, S., PHAN BA, R., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2012). Multimodal evaluation of gait and stride dynamics in relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine, 1, 66-69.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Ambulation measures are being increasingly recognized as highly relevant to the quantification of multiple sclerosis (MS) severity and response to treatment. Feet paths are highly informative for gait analysis ...
Lejeune, A., Pierard, S., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Verly, J. (2011). A new jump edge detection method for 3D cameras. International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D) (pp. 7). IEEE.
Peer reviewed
Edges is a fundamental clue for analyzing, interpreting, and understanding 3D scenes: they describe objects boundaries. Available edge detection methods are not suited for 3D cameras such as the Microsoft ...
Pierard, S., PHAN BA, R., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Belachew, S. (2011). A new low-cost and non-intrusive feet tracker. Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing (ProRISC) (pp. 382-387).
Capturing gait is useful for many applications, including video-surveillance and medical purposes. The most common sensors used to capture gait suffer from significant drawbacks. We have therefore designed a ...
Pierard, S., Leroy, D., Hansen, J.-F., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2011). Estimation of human orientation in images captured with a range camera. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (ACIVS) (pp. 519-530). Springer.
Peer reviewed
Estimating the orientation of the observed person is a crucial task for some application fields like home entertainment, man-machine interaction, or intelligent vehicles. In this paper, we discuss the ...
Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Pierard, S. (2011). Object descriptors based on a list of rectangles: method and algorithm. In Soille (Ed.), International Symposium on Mathematical Morhology (ISMM) (pp. 155-165). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Peer reviewed
Most morphological operators use a unique structuring element, possibly at different scales, to describe an object. In addition, morphological algorithms are often restricted to 1D structuring elements ...
Pierard, S., Lejeune, A., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2011). A probabilistic pixel-based approach to detect humans in video streams. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2011) (pp. 921-924). IEEE.
Peer reviewed
Human detection in video streams is an important task in many applications including video surveillance. Surprisingly, only few papers have been devoted to this topic. This paper presents a new approach to ...
Szepetiuk, G., Pierard, S., PIERARD-FRANCHIMONT, C., CAUCANAS, M., QUATRESOOZ, P., & PIERARD, G. (2011). Recent trends in specular light reflectance beyond clinical fluorescence diagnosis. European Journal of Dermatology, 21(2), 157-61.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Under specific light illumination, particularly ultraviolet (UV) and near-UV light stimulation, the skin produces both specular light reflectance and, possibly, specific fluorescent emission. These properties ...
Barnich, O., Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2010). A virtual curtain for the detection of humans and access control. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (ACIVS) (pp. 98-109).
Peer reviewed
Biometrics has become a popular field for the development of techniques that aim at recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In particular, many solutions dedicated to ...
Pierard, S., Lejeune, A., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2010). 3D information is valuable for the detection of humans in video streams. 3D Stereo Media.
Peer reviewed
In this paper, we propose a technique based on 3D information (also called depth or range) for the detection of humans. First, a background subtraction technique operates to detect the silhouettes of humans ...
Pierard, S., Pierlot, V., Barnich, O., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Verly, J. (2010). A platform for the fast interpretation of movements and localization of users in 3D applications driven by a range camera. Proceedings of the 3DTV Conference (pp. 4).
Peer reviewed
Interactivity is one of the key challenges for immersive applications like gaming. Manufacturers have been working towards interfaces that are driven by a device (e.g. a Wiimote) or interfaces that are ...
Devillers, C., Pierard, G., Quatresooz, P., & Pierard, S. (2010). Environmental dew point and skin and lip weathering. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology, 24(5), 513-7.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Xerosis represents a physiological response of the stratum corneum (SC) to environmental threats. The influence of the environmental dew point (DP) is not fully understood. This parameter is the air ...
Pierard, S., Noel, F., Franchimont, C., Pierard, G., & Quatresooz, P. (2010). Gaïa, le stress géoclimatique et la peau. Dermo'Sphère, 2, 12-13.
Le Soleil est à l’origine de la vie sur Terre. Le grand ensemble d’interactions biogéochimiques entre la vie, le sol, l’atmosphère et l’océan n’est pas sans rappeler la physiologie d’un grand organisme unique ...
Quatresooz, P., PIERARD, G., FRANCHIMONT, C., Humbert, P., & Pierard, S. (2010). Introduction a l'analyse spectrale des reseaux microvasculaires du melanome cutane primitif. Pathologie Biologie.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Cutaneous malignant melanoma represents one of the most dramatic skin cancers because its incidence is steadily growing in White populations. Of note, its metastatic risk and mortality dramatically increase ...
Quatresooz, P., Pierard, G., FRANCHIMONT, C., HUMBERT, P., & Pierard, S. (2010). Introduction a l'analyse spectrale des reseaux microvasculaires du melanome cutane primitif. Pathologie Biologie, 60, 149-153.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Cutaneous malignant melanoma represents one of the most dramatic skin cancers because its incidence is steadily growing in White populations. Of note, its metastatic risk and mortality dramatically increase ...
Pierard, S., Leens, J., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2009, November). Real-time processing of depth and color video streams to improve the reliability of depth maps. Poster session presented at 3D Stereo Media, Liège, Belgium.
Depth is a useful information in vision to understand the geometrical properties of an environment. Depth is traditionally computed in terms of a disparity map acquired by a stereoscopic system but, over ...
Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2009). A technique for building databases of annotated and realistic human silhouettes based on an avatar. Annual Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing (ProRISC) (pp. 243-246).
The real-time interpretation of video scenes and human motion is a research field with a lot of applications. Awidely used pre-processing step is the background subtraction, which highlights silhouettes. In ...
Pierard, S., & Van Droogenbroeck, M. (2009, November). Techniques to improve the foreground segmentation with a 3D camera and a color camera.
Nowadays, techniques for real-time interpretation of video scenes are widespread. Amongst these techniques, the foreground segmentation is one of the favorite. It can be applied to color images as well as ...
Leens, J., Pierard, S., Barnich, O., Van Droogenbroeck, M., & Wagner, J.-M. (2009). Combining Color, Depth, and Motion for Video Segmentation. Computer Vision Systems (pp. 104-113). Springer.
Peer reviewed
This paper presents an innovative method to interpret the content of a video scene using a depth camera. Cameras that provide distance instead of color information are part of a promising young technology ...
Pierard, S. (2007). Génération automatique d'une base de données de silhouettes humaines au moyen d'un avatar humain tridimensionnel. Unpublished master thesis, Université de Liège, ​Liège, ​​Belgique.
Pour la conception de systèmes de vidéo-surveillance, il est avantageux d’avoir un système de détection automatique d’êtres humains. Certains de ces systèmes sont basés sur la reconnaissance de la forme de ...