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Michael Kraft - Publications ORBI
Colson, G., Laurent, P., Bellier, P., Stoukatch, S., Dupont, F., & Kraft, M. (2017, May 10). Smart-shoes self-powered by walking. Poster session presented at Body sensor networks, Eindhoven, Pays-bas.
Peer reviewed
Nowadays, electronic devices are more and more compact and can be integrated in nearly every object. One of the remaining challenges is to provide smarter ways to power those electronic devices. Because of the ...
Van Loo, S., Stoukatch, S., Kraft, M., & Gilet, T. (2016). Droplet formation by squeezing in a microfluidic cross-junction. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 20(10), 1-12.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
In microfluidics, flow focusing is widely used to produce water-in-oil droplets in microchannels at high frequency. We here report an experimental study of droplet formation in a microfluidic cross-junction ...
Van Loo, S., Stoukatch, S., Kraft, M., & Gilet, T. (2016, September 07). How do droplets form? Poster session presented at 1st International Conference on Multiscale Applications of Surface Tension, Bruxelles, Belgium.
Peer reviewed
In microfluidics, flow focusing is widely used to produce water-in-oil droplets in microchannels at high frequency. We here report an experimental study of droplet formation in a microfluidic cross-junction ...
Chen, F., Li, X., & Kraft, M. (2016). Electromechanical Sigma-Delta Modulators (EMSDM) force feedback interfaces for capacitive MEMS inertial sensors: a review. IEEE Sensors Journal.
Peer reviewed
Analog-to-digital converters (ADC) based on sigma-delta modulators (SDM) are a popular choice for high resolution conversion from the analog to the digital domain. With relatively small modifications they also ...
Mross, S., Zimmermann, T., Winkin, N., Kraft, M., & Vogt, H. (2016). Integrated multi-sensor system for parallel in-situ monitoring of cell nutrients, metabolites, cell density and pH in biotechnological processes. Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
We report on a multi-sensor system for the parallel in-situ monitoring of cell nutrients, metabolites, cell density and pH in biotechnological processes. The fabrication process of the sensor chip, based on a ...
Pachkawade, V., Junghare, R., Patrikar, R., & Kraft, M. (2016). Mechanically-coupled ring-resonator filter and array (analytical and finite element model). IET Computers & Digital Techniques.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
In this paper, a design of two microelectromechanical systems based devices is carried out using an analytical and finite-element analysis. The first device is mechanically coupled ring-resonator band-pass ...
Wood, G., Chun, Z., Pu, S., Boden, S., Sari, I., & Kraft, M. (2016). Mass sensor utilising the mode-localisation effect in an electrostatically-coupled MEMS resonator pair fabricated using an SOI process. Microelectronic Engineering, 159, 169-173.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The change in the mass, achieved with focused ion beam(FIB) milling, of one of a pair of electrostatically-coupled microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators has been detected utilising the mode ...
Wood, G., Chun, Z., Pu, S., Boden, S., Sari, & Kraft, M. (2016). An investigation of structural dimension variation in electrostatically-coupled MEMS resonator pairs using mode-localization. IEEE Sensors Journal.
Peer reviewed
If a pair of MEMS resonators are electrostatically coupled together, the vibration amplitude ratios at the resonant frequencies of the resulting coupled system are sensitive to stiffness perturbation. An ...
Zhang, H. M., Yuan, W. Z., Li, B. Y., Hao, Y. C., Kraft, M., & Chang, H. (2016). An acceleration sensing method based on the mode localization of weakly coupled resonators. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 25(2), 286-296.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Abstract—This paper reports an acceleration sensing method based on two weakly coupled resonators (WCRs) using the phenomenon of mode localization. When acceleration acts on the proof masses, differential ...
Zhao, C., Wood, G., Xie, J. B., Chang, H., Pu, S., & Kraft, M. (2016). Comparative study of output metrics for A MEMS resonant sensor consisting of three weakly coupled resonators. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Abstract—This paper systematically investigates the characteristics of different output metrics for a weakly coupled three degree-of-freedom microelectromechanical systems resonant sensor. The key figures-of ...
Almutairi, B., Alsheri, A., & Kraft, M. (2015, September). Design and implementation of a MASH2-0 Electromechanical Sigma-Delta Modulator for capacitive MEMS sensors using dual quantization method. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
In this paper, a new control structure based on the dual quantization technique is presented for an electromechanical sigma–delta modulator (EM-SD M) applied to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS ...
Zhao, C., Wood, G., Xie, J. B., Chang, H., Pu, S., & Kraft, M. (2015). A force sensor based on three weakly coupled resonators with ultrahigh sensitivity. Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical, 232, 151-162.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
A proof-of-concept force sensor based on three degree-of-freedom (DoF) weakly coupled resonatorswas fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process and electrically tested in 20 Torr vacuum.Compared to ...
Zhao, C., Wood, G., Xie, J. B., Chang, H., Pu, S., & Kraft, M. (2015). Comparative study of different output metrics for a three weakly coupled resonator sensor. Proceedings of Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2015).
Peer reviewed
This work, for the first time, investigates the characteristics of different output metrics for a three degree-of-freedom (DoF) coupled resonator sensor. The main aspects examined are sensitivity and linear ...
Montaseri, M., Xie, J. B., Chang, H., Zhao, C., Wood, G., & Kraft, M. (2015). Atmospheric pressure mode localization coupled resonators stiffness sensor. Proceedings of Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2015).
Peer reviewed
This paper reports on a 3-DoF mode localization resonant sensor experimentally evaluated under atmospheric conditions. It was demonstrated that using amplitude ratio as an output signal, even when the device ...
Zhang, H., Yuan, W. Z., Li, B. Y., Hao, Y. C., Kraft, M., & Chang, H. (2015). A novel resonant accelerometer based on model localization of weakly coupled resonators. Proceedings of Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2015).
Peer reviewed
This paper describes a novel MEMS resonant accelerometer based on two weakly coupled resonators (WCRs) using the phenomenon of mode localization. It is the first time that this principle is demonstrated ...
Mross, S., Fuerst, P., Pierrat, S., Vogt, H., & Kraft, M. (2015). Enzyme sensor with Polydimethylsiloxane membrane and CMOS potentiostat for wide-range glucose measurements. IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(12), 7096-7104.
Peer reviewed
We report on an electrochemical measurement setup comprising a glucose sensor and a CMOS potentiostat with a two-layer membrane as the first steps toward the development of an integrated in-situ sensor system ...
Mross, S., Pierrat, S., Zimmermann, T., & Kraft, M. (2015). Microfluidic Enzymatic Biosensing Systems: a Review. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 70, 376-391.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Microfluidic biosensing systems with enzyme-based detection have been extensively studied in the last years owing to features such as high specificity, a broad range of analytes and a high degree of automation ...
Zhao, C., Wood, G., Xie, J. B., Chang, H., Pu, S., & Kraft, M. (2015). A three degree-of-freedom weakly coupled resonator sensor with enhanced stiffness sensitivity. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 25(1), 38-51.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Abstract—This paper reports a three degree-of freedom (3DoF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonant sensing device consisting of three weakly coupled resonators with enhanced sensitivity to stiffness ...
De Leon, M. T., Chong, H., & Kraft, M. (2014). Solar thermoelectric generators fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 24(8), 085011 (12pp) // 085011.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Solar thermal power generation is an attractive electricity generation technology as it is environment-friendly, has the potential for increased efficiency, and has high reliability. The design, modelling, and ...
Görtz, M., Betz, W., Mokwa, W., Vogt, H., & Kraft, M. (2013). Verkapselungstechniken für implantierbare integrierte MEMS Drucksensoren. Von Bauelementen zu Systemen : Mikrosystemtechnik Kongress 2013 (pp. 586--587). VDE-Verl., Berlin [u.a.].
Peer reviewed
Medizinisch implantierbare MEMS-Sensoren (Micro-Electro -Mechanical Systems) haben ein erhebliches Potenzial für diagnostische und therapeutische Anwendungen, wie die kontinuierliche Drucküberwachung, Nerven ...
Gleeson, R., Kraft, M., & White, N. (2012). Design and analysis of MEMS step up voltage converters. IEEE Sensors 2012 (pp. 1-4). IEEE.
Peer reviewed
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of voltage step-up converters for energy harvesting and other low-power applications. The step-up operation is based on isolating the charge of a mechanically ...
Chang, H., Xue, L., Jiang, C., Kraft, M., & Yuan, W. (2012). Combining numerous uncorrelated MEMS gyroscopes for accuracy improvement based on an optimal Kalman filter. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 61(11), 3084-3093.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
In this paper, an approach to improve the accuracy of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes by combining numerous uncorrelated gyroscopes is presented. A Kalman filter (KF) is used to fuse the ...
Zeimpekis, I., Sari, I., & Kraft, M. (2012). Characterization of a mechanical motion amplifier applied to a MEMS accelerometer. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 21(5), 1032-1042.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
In this paper, a mechanical amplification concept for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) physical sensors is proposed with the aim to improve their sensitivity. The scheme is implemented using a system of ...
Kraft, M., & Damrongsak, B. (2010). Micromachined gyroscopes based on a rotating mechanically unconstrained proof mass. IEEE Sensors 2010. Piscataway and NJ: IEEE.
Peer reviewed
This paper describes the state-of-the-art of micromachined gyroscopes based on a spinning, electrostatically suspended rotor as proof mass. This approach has numerous advantages over the prevailing approach ...
Ding, H., Liu, X., Lin, L., Chi, X., Cui, J., Kraft, M., Yang, Z., & Yan, G. (2010). A high-resolution silicon-on-glass z axis gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure. IEEE Sensors Journal, 10(6), 1066--1074.
Peer reviewed
This paper describes a high-resolution silicon-on-glass <i>z</i> axis gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure. The mechanical structure is designed in such a way that it exhibits low cross coupling between ...
Qiao, X., Gao, N., Moktadir, Z., Kraft, M., & Starvink, M. J. (2010). Fabrication of MEMS components using ultra fine grained aluminium. Journal of Micromechanics & Microengineering, 20(4).
A novel process for the fabrication of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metallic component with features smaller than 10 µm and high thermal conductivity was investigated. This may be applied to new or ...
Qiao, X. G., Gao, N., Moktadir, Z., Kraft, M., & Starnik, M. J. (2010). Microembossing of ultrafine grained Al: Microstructural analysis and finite element modeling. Journal of Micromechanics & Microengineering, 20(4), 045029.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Ultra-fine-grained (UFG) Al-1050 processed by equal channel angular pressing and UFG Al–Mg–Cu–Mn processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) were embossed at both room temperature and 300 ◦C, with the aim of ...
Sewell, R. J., Dingjan, J., Baumgärtner, F., Llorente-Garcia, I., Eriksson, S., Hinds, E. A., Lewis, G. N., Srinivasan, P., Moktadir, Z., Gollasch, C. O., & Kraft, M. (2010). Atom chip for BEC interferometry. Journal of Physics B, 43(5), 051003.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
We have fabricated and tested an atom chip that operates as a matter wave interferometer. In this paper we describe the fabrication of the chip by ionbeam milling of gold evaporated onto a silicon substrate ...
Srinivasan, P., Gollasch, C. O., & Kraft, M. (2010). Three dimensional electrostatic actuators for tunable optical micro cavities. Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical, 161(1-2), 191--198.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The ability to fabricate micro scale structures with three dimensional features can augment the design opportunities to realise novel devices. This paper discusses the theoretical and experimental performance ...
Kraft, M. (2009). Engineering atom chips. 2009 4th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems. Piscataway and NJ: IEEE.
Peer reviewed
Atom Chips are a new and exciting technology that enable the manipulation of atoms close to a chip surface. These chips combine cold atom physics with MEMS microfabrication techniques to create electric ...
Kraft, M., & Ding, H. (2009). Sigma-delta modulator based control systems for MEMS gyroscopes. 2009 4th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (pp. 41--46). Piscataway and NJ: IEEE.
Peer reviewed
In this paper a review is presented about recent developments of using sigma-delta modulator (SDM) control systems for micromachined, capacitive vibratory rate MEMS gyroscopes. The design choices, their ...
Luo, J., Ding, H., & Kraft, M. (2009). A new design methodology for electro-mechanical Sigma- Delta-Modulators. 2009 4th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (pp. 881--884). Piscataway and NJ: IEEE.
Peer reviewed
Sigma-Delta-Modulators (SDM) are the most successful technique for analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion, especially for high resolution applications. Similar techniques and architectures have been applied to ...
Gong, W., Mowlem, M., Kraft, M., & Morgan, F. (2009). A simple, low-cost double beam spectrophotometer for colorimetric detection of nitrite in seawater. IEEE Sensors Journal, 9(7), 862--869.
Peer reviewed
This paper reports on the optical detection system of a prototype nitrite sensor for seawater analysis. The sensor uses a colorimetric Griess reaction that produces an Azo dye with an absorption peak at 540 nm ...
Iqtidar Shakoor, R., Bazaz, S. A., Kraft, M., Lai, Y., & Masood Ul Hassan, M. (2009). Thermal actuation based 3-DoF non-resonant microgyroscope using MetalMUMPs. Sensors, 9(4), 2389--2414.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
High force, large displacement and low voltage consumption are a primary concern for microgyroscopes. The chevron-shaped thermal actuators are unique in terms of high force generation combined with the large ...
Lewis, G. N., Moktadir, Z., Gollasch, C. O., Kraft, M., Pollock, S., Ramirez-Martinez, F., Ashmore, J. P., Laliotis, A., Trupke, M., & Hinds, E. A. (2009). Fabrication of magnetooptical atom traps on a chip. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 18(2), 347--353.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Ultracold atoms can be manipulated using microfabricated devices known as atom chips. These have significant potential for applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum information processing. To date, the ...
Lewis, G. N., Moktadir, Z., Kraft, M., & Jiang, L. (2009). Resistivity percolation of co-sputtered amorphous Si/Ti films. Materials Letters, 63(2), 215--217.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Amorphous silicon/titanium (a-Si/Ti) composite was deposited by co-sputtering techniques at room temperature with a view to explore its potential applications for monolithic integration of micro ...
Gong, W., Mowlem, M., Kraft, M., & Morgan, F. (2008). Oceanographic sensor for in-situ temperature and conductivity monitoring. OCEANS 2008 - MTS/IEEE Kobe Techno-Ocean. Piscataway and N. J: IEEE.
Peer reviewed
The design and micro-fabrication of a new combined temperature and conductivity sensor is presented. The temperature sensor is based on a thermistor and the conductivity sensor uses two planar electrodes built ...
Damrongsak, B., Kraft, M., Rajgopal, S., & Mehregany, M. (2008). Design and fabrication of a micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscope. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers - Part C - Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 222(1), 53--63.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The current paper describes the design and fabrication of a micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscope. Electrostatic levitation is employed to suspend the rotor, eliminating the mechanical bearing ...
Dong, Y., Kraft, M., Hedenstierna, N., & Redman-White, W. (2008). Microgyroscope control system using a high-order band-pass continuous-time sigma-delta modulator. Sensors and Actuators A, 145-146(Jul.-Aug), 299--305.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The paper presents a novel 6th order continuous-time, force-feedback band-pass sigma-delta modulator control system for the detection mode of micromachined vibratory gyroscopes. Compared with the architecture ...
Moktadir, Z., & Kraft, M. (2008). Scaling properties of pyrex and silicon surfaces blasted with sharp particles. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 387(8-9), 2083--2090.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The blasting of brittle materials with sharp particles is an important fabrication technology in many industrial processes. In particular, for microsystems, it allows the production of devices with feature ...
Taberham, A., Kraft, M., Mowlem, M., & Morgan, H. (2008). The fabrication of lab-on-chip devices from fluoropolymers. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 18(6), 064011.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Three different rapid manufacturing methods for the construction of fluoropolymer microfluidic devices were investigated: (1) fluoropolymer/epoxy laminate/fluoropolymer structures, (2) fluoropolymer ...
Dong, Y., Kraft, M., Hedenstierna, N., & Redman-White, W. (2007). Microgyroscope control system using a high-order band-pass continuous-time sigma-delta modulator. TRANSDUCERS 2007 (pp. 2533-2536).
Peer reviewed
The paper presents a novel 6th order continuous-time, force-feedback band-pass sigma-delta modulator control system for the sense mode of micromachined vibratory gyroscopes. Compared with the architecture ...
Jiang, L., Pandraud, G., French, P. J., Spearing, S. M., & Kraft, M. (2007). Wafer Bonding with nanoprecision alignment for micro/nano systems. TRANSDUCERS 2007 (pp. 2103-2016).
Peer reviewed
Exploiting mechanical principles of kinematic and elastic averaging, a novel passive approach has been developed to achieve nanoprecision bonding alignment. Alignment features comprising cantilever supported ...
Dong, Y., Kraft, M., & Redman-White, W. (2007). Higher order noise-shaping filters for high-performance micromachined accelerometers. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 56(5), 1666-1674.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Micromachined inertial sensors that have been incorporated in sigma-delta force-feedback loops have been proven to improve linearity, dynamic range, and bandwidth, and also provide a direct digital output ...
Dong, Y., Kraft, M., & Redman-White, W. (2007). Micromachined vibratory gyroscopes controlled by a high-order bandpass sigma-delta modulator. IEEE Sensors Journal, 7(1), 59--69.
Peer reviewed
This work reports on the design of novel closed-loop control systems for the sense mode of a vibratory-rate gyroscope based on a high-order sigma-delta modulator (SigmaDeltaM). A low-pass and two distinctive ...
Jiang, L., Pandraud, G., French, P. J., Spearing, S. M., & Kraft, M. (2007). A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 17(7), 61-S67.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Wafer bonding has been identified as a promising technique to enable fabrication of many advanced semiconductor devices such as three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D IC) and micro /nano systems. However ...
Moktadir, Z., Darquié, B., Kraft, M., & Hinds, E. A. (2007). The effect of self-affine fractal roughness of wires on atom chips. Journal of Modern Optics, 54(13-15), 2149--2160.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Atom chips use current flowing in lithographically patterned wires to produce microscopic magnetic traps for atoms. The density distribution of a trapped cold atom cloud reveals disorder in the trapping ...
Sun, D.-M., Dong, W., Liu, C.-X., Chen, W.-Y. Y., & Kraft, M. (2007). Analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a torsional micro-mirror. Microsystem Technologies, 13(1), 61--70.
Peer reviewed
Abstract In this paper, the results of the dynamic pull-in voltage characteristics of a micro-mirror using electrostatic actuation are analyzed. Based on torsional dynamic theory, appropriate equations are ...
Dong, Y., Kraft, M., & Redman-White, W. (2006). Force feedback linearization for higher-order electromechanical sigma--delta modulators. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 16(6), 54-S60.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
A higher-order electromechanical sigma–delta modulator can greatly improve the signal-to-noise ratio compared with a second-order loop that only uses the sensing element as a loop filter. However, the ...
Trupke, M., Ramirez-Martinez, F., Curtis, E. A., Ashmore, J. P., Eriksson, S., Hinds, E. A., Moktadir, Z., Gollasch, C. O., Kraft, M., Vijaya Prakash, G., & Baumberg, J. J. (2006). Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips. Applied Physics Letters, 88(7), 071116--071116-3.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Concave pyramids are created in the (100) surface of a silicon wafer by anisotropic etching in potassium hydroxide. High quality micromirrors are then formed by sputtering gold onto the smooth silicon (111 ...
Dong, Y., Kraft, M., Gollasch, C. O., & Redman-White, W. (2005). A high-performance accelerometer with a fifth-order sigma--delta modulator. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 15(7), 22-S29.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
To verify the effectiveness of a higher order electromechanical sigma–delta modulator (SD M), a micromachined accelerometer is fabricated. The in-plane sensor with fully differential structure has a ...
Eriksson, S., Trupke, M., Powell, H. F., Sahagun, D., Sinclair, D. J., Curtis, E. A., Sauer, B. E., Hinds, E. A., Moktadir, Z., Gollasch, C. O., & Kraft, M. (2005). Integrated optical components on atom chips. The European Physical Journal D, 35(1), 135--139.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
We report on the integration of small-scale optical components into silicon wafers for use in atom chips. We present an on-chip fibre-optic atom detection scheme that can probe clouds with small atom numbers ...
Gollasch, C. O., Moktadir, Z., Kraft, M., Trupke, M., Eriksson, S., & Hinds, E. A. (2005). A three-dimensional electrostatic actuator with a locking mechanism for microcavities on atom chips. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 15(7), 39-S46.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
A micromachined three-dimensional electrostatic actuator that is optimized for aligning and tuning optical microcavities on atom chips is presented. The design of the 3D actuator is outlined in detail, and ...
Houlihan, R., & Kraft, M. (2005). Modelling squeeze film effects in a MEMS accelerometer with a levitated proof mass. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 15(5), 893--902.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
A triaxial accelerometer is presented which employs as its proof mass a mechanically free micromachined disc that is electrostatically levitated. Air damping plays a critical role in the operation of the ...
Koukharenka, A., Kraft, M., Ensell, G., & Hollinshead, N. (2005). A comparative study of four thick photoresists for MEMS applications. Journal Material Science: Materials in Electronics, 16(11-12).
Peer reviewed
This work reports on recent advances in microfabrication process technology for medium to high-aspect ratio structures realised by UV photolithography using different kinds of photoresists. The resulting ...
Moktadir, Z., & Kraft, M. (2005). Wavelet characterization of coarsening during unstable MBE growth. Microelectronics Journal, 56(3-6).
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
We present a wavelet analysis of coarsening of mounds during molecular beam epitaxy. The advantage in using wavelets over Fourier analysis is that one can track the coarsening process in both, location (direct ...
Moktadir, Z., Wensink, H., & Kraft, M. (2005). Analytical model of micromachining of brittle materials with sharp particles. Microelectronics Journal, 36(3-6).
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
We present an analytical model for the powder blasting of brittle materials with sharp particles. We developed a continuum equation, which describes the surface evolution during the powder blasting, into which ...
Sun, D.-M., Dong, W., Guo, W., Liu, C.-X., Wang, G. D., Yan, X., Xu, B., Chen, W.-Y. Y., & Kraft, M. (2005). Study on actuating voltage and switching time of a MOEMS optical switch. Optics \& Laser Technology, 37(8), 601--607.
The micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) optical switch with slant lower electrode and with torsion beam on silicon is designed and analyzed theoretically. Based on the torsion dynamics theory, the ...
Trupke, M., Hinds, E. A., Eriksson, S., Curtis, E. A., Moktadir, Z., Kukharenka, E., & Kraft, M. (2005). Microfabricated high-finesse optical cavity with open access and small volume. Applied Physics Letters, 87(21), 211106--211106-3.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
We present a microfabricated optical cavity, which combines a very small mode volume with high finesse. In contrast to other micro-resonators, such as microspheres, the structure we have built gives atoms and ...
Haas, C. H., & Kraft, M. (2004). Modelling and analysis of a MEMS approach to dc voltage step-up conversion. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14(9), 114-S122.
Peer reviewed
This paper studies the principle of a novel voltage step-up converter based on a micromachined variable parallel-plate capacitor in combination with an electrostatic actuator. Electrical equivalent circuit ...
Koukharenko, E., Moktadir, Z., Kraft, M., Abdelsalam, M. E., Bagnall, D. M., Vale, C., Jones, M. P. A., & Hinds, E. A. (2004). Microfabrication of gold wires for atom guides. Sensors and Actuators A, 115(2-3), 600--607.
Peer reviewed
Miniaturised atom optics is a new field allowing the control of cold atoms in microscopic magnetic traps and waveguides. Using microstructures (hereafter referred to as atom chips), the control of cold atoms on ...
Moktadir, Z., Koukharenka, E., Kraft, M., Bagnall, D. M., Powell, H. F., Jones, M., & Hinds, E. A. (2004). Etching techniques for realizing optical micro-cavity atom traps on silicon. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14(9), 82-S85.
Peer reviewed
We have fabricated curved optical micromirrors on silicon. We expect to be able to form open optical cavities between these mirrors and plane mirrors coated on the ends of optical fibres. The curved mirror ...
Moktadir, Z., Prakash, G. V., Koukharenko, E., Gollasch, C. O., Bagnall, D. M., Kraft, M., Hinds, E. A., & Baumberg, J. J. (2004). Fabrication of micromirrors with pyramidal shape using anisotropic etching of silicon with KOH. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).
Peer reviewed
We report in this work the fabrication and optical characterization of micromirrors with inversed pyramidal shape (pits). The pyramids are etched on silicon using an anisotropic etchant and then gold coated to form a mirror.
Stefanou, S., Hamel, J. S., Baine, P., Bain, M., Armstrong, B. M., Gamble, H. S., Kraft, M., & Kemhadjian, H. A. (2004). Ultralow silicon substrate noise crosstalk using metal Faraday cages in an SOI technology. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 51(3), 486--491.
Peer reviewed
Ultralow substrate crosstalk is demonstrated using a novel metal Faraday cage isolation scheme in silicon-on-insulator technology. Over ten times reduction in crosstalk is demonstrated up to 10 GHz, compared ...
Gindila, M. V., & Kraft, M. (2003). Electronic interface design for an electrically floating micro-disc. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 13(4), 11-S16.
Peer reviewed
The design of an electronic interface for an electrically floating micro-disc is presented. The system, based on a second order electromechanical – modulator, can be used as a multi-axis capacitive ...
Kukharenka, E., Farooqui, M. M., Grigore, L., Kraft, M., & Hollinshead, N. (2003). Electroplating moulds using dry film thick negative photoresist. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 13(4), 67-S74.
Peer reviewed
This paper reports on progress on the feasibility of fabricating moulds for electroplating using Ordyl P-50100 (negative) acrylate polymer based dry film photoresist, commercially available from Elga ... ...
Houlihan, R., & Kraft, M. (2002). Modelling of an accelerometer based on a levitated proof mass. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 12(4), 495--503.
Peer reviewed
A triaxial accelerometer is presented which employs as its proof mass a mechanically free micromachined disc that is electrostatically levitated. Air damping plays a critical role in the operation of the ...
Jiang, X., Seeger, J. I., Kraft, M., & Boser, B. E. (2000). A monolithic surface micromachined Z-axis gyroscope with digital output. 2000 Symposium on VLSI Circuits (pp. 16-19).
Peer reviewed
A monolithic surface micromachined Z-axis vibratory rate gyroscope with an on-chip A/D converter is fabricated in a monolithic MEMS/circuits technology with 2 /spl mu/m CMOS and 2.25 /spl mu/m-thick mechanical ...
Kraft, M., Lewis, C. P., & Hesketh, T. G. (1998). Closed-loop silicon accelerometers. IEE Proceedings - Circuits, Devices and Systems, 145(5), 325--331.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
The control-system structure and behaviour are considered for an analogue and a digital servo-accelerometer having a dynamic range from mg to several g (1g=9.81 ms<sup>-2</sup>), for use in low-frequency ...
Lewis, C. P., & Kraft, M. (1996). Simulation of a micromachined digital accelerometer in SIMULINK and PSPICE. UKACC International Conference on Control '96 (pp. 1, pp. 205-209).
Peer reviewed
The development of a mathematical model of a closed loop micromachined silicon accelerometer is a very important consideration in the design of such a transducer. The sensing element being used for this work ...